The Vedic Period and Vedic culture Life Style 1500BC-600 BC
The Vedic Period and Vedic culture Life Style 1500BC-600 BC: Vedic culture Existed in northern India. (It is called Vedic culture because the Vedic literature are the chief source of information ).Vedic literature has Shruthi (revealed), smrithi (memorized) literatures.
Shruti – consists Vedas. They are….
Rig Veda (collection of prayers)
Yajur Veda (sacrificial manual)
Sama Veda (musical form of Rigvedic hymns)
Adharva Veda (magical charms)
Rig Veda consists Four points:
b)Brahman as (commentary in prose)
d)Upanishads (philosophical aspects )
The Vedic Period and Vedic culture – Smriti literature:
Smriti literature Consists Vedangas, Upavedas:
1)Shiksha – phonetics
2)Vyakarana – grammar
3)Chandas – metre
4)Nirukta – etymology
5)Kalpa – vitual
6)Jyothishya – astronomy
1) gandharva Veda – music
2) shilpa Veda – sculpture
3)Ayur Veda – medicine
4) Dhanur Veda – archery or art of war
Sutras (Rituals to guide people):
Grihya sutras –explains domestic rituals
Shrauta sutras – explains public rituals
Sulha sutras – explains science of alters
Dharma sutras – explains customary law and practices.
Brahma puranas , matsya puranas , Kurma puranas, varaha puranas, padma puranas, Vishnu puranas, Shiva puranas, Agni puranas, vayu puranas
Vedic Period- Vedic culture -Epics:
The Ramayana and Mahabharata are the epics
Aryans created vedic literature
In the view of professor RS Sharma Aryans came from alphas region known as Eurasia
The word Aryan indicates a speech group of “Indo European origin’’
Sanskrit is the Vedic literature language
This language belongs to the Indo European language family
Aryans entered India just before 1500 BC
They came in groups
Dasyus the black skinned natives resists them
Aryans defeated dasyus because of having their well developed horse chariots
Aryans lived in rural in attached houses
Important animals are cow and horse
We can see 4 varmas in Aryans
They had belief in yagnas the religious sacrifices which were predicted by priests
They worshipped nature
The period of Vedic culture -Aryans life style:
Vedic Period – Vedic culture – Food:
Rice, wheat, barley, Milk products, fruits, vegetables, meat, soma (it is a veligious drink )
The period of Vedic culture – Clothes :
Dresses were made woolen, cotton and silk
Vedic Period – Ornaments:
Main Jewellery is Necklaces made of gold, ear rings
Both the men and wore anklets
The period of Vedic culture-Houses:
Used wooden frames to build houses
They built walls with reed and it was stuffed with straw
After the Vedic period they built the walls with mud bricks.
The period of Vedic culture-Entertainment:
Music, dancing, dicing, hunting, chariot racing.
Aryan mostly gave the preference for outdoor activities.
The period of Vedic culture-Social organization:
They divided the society into three classes
Every division was divided based on the attitude
(In every family based on the fighting attitude one had to join army as a warrior and a priest if he had the praying, preaching, and teaching attitude.)
At the time of later vedic period (1000-600 BC) chaturvarna system emerged.
Vedic Period and Vedic culture Life Style – The chaturvarnas are:
Aryans started thread are money.
It gives dvija status. It is for only upper varnas.
Upanayana and Gothra institutions started .
Also started Ashvamas .
Sanyashrama not introduced at this time.
The period of Vedic culture-Women Life Style:
Women had good position at Rigvedic period that is 1500 to 1000 BC
Women used to attend tribal assemblies
They were sabha and vidatha
In this period some women were highly educated
The example are Uppla, Ghosha, Visvavara .
Women had important role in religious ceremonies.
We can see Levirate and widow remarriage in this period and they don’t know Child marriage.
But in the Vedic period the importance of women was reduced.
The Period of Vedic Culture-Family System:
Patriachal joint family system
Eldest Male member was the head of the family
Religious life in vedic culture :
Religious Life -Rigvedic Period:
Worshipped male gods and female goddesses.
Female godessas: Prithvi, ushas
Male Gods: Indra , Agni, Varuna, Maruti
They performed the worships in the form of prayers and Sacrifices.
Worshipped for pashu (cattle), praja ( children ), health and wealth.
Religious life-Later Vedic Period:
Some gods gone backward like Varuna, Indra
New Gods emerged like Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra.
Vedic Period Economic Life:
Main occupations are weaving, carpentry, metal crafts, pottery, chariot making, leather works.
Used barter system for trade.
Cow and nishka are unit values.
In later vedic period agriculture plaid important role.
Hasthinapur and kousambi were known as early towns during the later Vedic period
Used gold, bronze, copper, silver and tin.
Iron not known.
Iron used from 7th century BC.
They use carts with wheels for transport.
Vedic Period and Vedic culture Life Style – Politics:
Rigvedic period tribes lead by RAJAN.
Tribal monarchy was present
They performed tribal assemblies like SABHA (Council of Elders) SAMITHI (General assembly), VIDHATHA.
Purohitha (priest), Senapathy (commander) were Important officers.
They fought mainly for cows
King did not have the power of collection
King received BALI (voluntary gifts )
And also received war spoils.
Economic Life -LATER VEDIC PERIOD:
King performed Rajasuya and Ashwamedha
Purohitha, senapathy, Yuvaraj, Samagrahiti (treasurer) Bhagaduga (tax collector) were the important officials.
Vedic Period Geographical Extent:
Geographical Extent -Rigvedic Period:
Aryans shelters in Saptha Sindhu first
Spread in modern east of Afghanisthan, Punjab, fringes of Western UP.
Aryans don’t know the land beyond Yamuna
In Rigvedic period Himalayas were maintained
Geographical Extent -Later Vedic Period:
In later Vedic period Aryans spread in Ganga-Yamuna Doab
Aryans occupied whole Gangetic plain and they entered into Deccan