The Maurya Dynasty-Chandraguptha Bindusara Ashoka
The Maurya Dynasty-Chandraguptha Bindusara Ashoka: Chandraguptha Maurya established Maurya dynasty in about 322 BC. He made Pataliputra as their capital. Bindusara, Ashoka and Brihadrata are other great Maurya emperors.
Chandragupta Maurya (322 BC to 297 BC):Chandragupta Maurya defeated Darma Nandana and established Maurya dynasty.Dharna Nanda was the last ruler of Nandas. Chandraguptha also defeated other Nanda kings with help of Kautilya or Chanukya. Later he occupied North Western India and occupied the east of Indus region. Chandraguptha did not cross Indus because of Seleucus Nicator. Then he conquered North Narmada Region in central India. In 303 BC he defeated Seleucus and occupied west Indus region that are Kabul, Kandhar, Heart and Bakuchistan. Chandraguptha Dynasty spread into Indus and Ganges plain and the far North West.
After cChandragupta His sn Bindudara came into the power.
He ruled from 297 to 272 BC.
Bindusara Spread the Mauryan Empire up to Mysore.
The almost subcontinent came under Mouryan dynasty except Kalinga under the rule reign of Bindusara.
After Bindusara Ashoka came in to the power.
AShoka ruled from 272 to 232 BC.
Ashoka established himself as the greatest ruler not only of Mouryas and India but also of the world.
Ashoka conquered Kalinga. He was the great king not only for his victories and conquest of Kalinga but also for his compassion.
After the Kalinga Battle he became a monk
Ashoka was a monk in the robes ofa monarch.
Ashoka adopted Buddhism.
He prohibited all the ritualistic killing of animals and birds. He stopped killing of animals in his capital.
He established hospitals for his people and animals too.
Ashoka evolved a code of conduct known as Dhamma.
Ashoka spread Dhamma which promoted common beliefs by popularizing Brahmi and Prakrit language.
Aftr Ashoka, Samprathi came in to the power in western India.
He made Ujjain as his capital.
And Dasaratha came into the power in eastern India. And his capital was Pataliputra.
The last Mauryan was BRIHADRATA.
He was so incompetent.
Brihadrata was killed by his own commander in chief in the presence of his own army.
Mauryan Empire Decline Reasons:
Over expenditure because of overburdened bureaucracy and army.
Mauryans had Inefficient bureaucracy.
Inefficient recruitment policy.
Cruel rules were applied in some parts of the empire.
Mauryans neglected north western frontier.
Mauryans deglected vedic rituals. So Pushyamithra Sunga reacated against these activities.
Incompetence of later Mauryas (Bihadratha).
Mauryas maintained centralized monarchy based on a large bureaucracy including a council of ministers.
Mauryas Revenue Administration:
Land revenue was the important income source.
Mauryas appointed Adyakshas (superintendents).
They formed the link between central and state.
Judicial officers (Rajukas) seved as assessment of revenue officers.
Mauryans maintained well nit espionage system.
Tirtas were the important officers.
Dhamma-Mahamantras were appointed by Ashoka to preach Dhamma.
Salaries for the officials were paid in cash (panas).
Mauryas Economic Condition:
Mauryas vast political empire was based on the agrarian economy.
King was the owner of all the land.
Farmer’s proprietorship was depended on customary and hereditary rights.
At the time of Mauryas Sudras started agriculture gradually.
Vaisyas moved in to trade.
Land Revenue 1/6 to 1/4.
The centralized administration gave them political stability.
Maurya Dynasty-Social Life:
The Vedic Varna system fourfold caste system did not work smoothly.
Bahmanism, Buddhism, Jainism, Ajivikas were the main religions.
Only Brahmins allowed learning Vedic education.
Maurya Dynasty – Important Sources:
Here are the main sources which learn us about the History of Mouryas
Arthashastra (written by Kautilya or Chanukya)
Mudra Rakshasa (Visakadatta)
Indica (written by Megastanes)
Inscriptions of Ashoka learn us abou the extent of his empire, his biography, administration and Dhamma.